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Practice Exercises for Learning Sindarin

EXERCISE 10: NASAL MUTATION Part 1 (§4.2.2)

PostAuthor: Eryniel » Thu Jul 21, 2011 11:57 am

Introduction:

We have learned that the article i causes the so called lenition. The plural has also a definite article: in. This plural article causes what is called nasal mutation. This mutation occurs less frequent than lenition and causes different changes to the first consonant of the following word. In many cases the -n of the plural article is assimilated into the following word and changes its initial consonant.
In this excercise we will concentrate only on the definite plural article in as a cause for nasal mutation. Other words that cause nasal mutation are an (preposition for to, towards, for) and dan (preposition for against, back) and will be discussed later on.

Nasal mutation causes the following consonant changes:

p-, t- and c- become ph-, th- and ch-:
tobas (roofing, roof) - i dobas (the roof) - i themais (the roofs)

b- and d- become m- and n-, but dr- is not changed:
bereth (queen, spouse) - i vereth (the queen) - i merith (the queens)
drambor (clenched fist) - i dhrambor (the clenched fist) - in drembyr (the clenched fists)

g- becomes ng-, but the combinations gl -, gr- or gw-, stay unchanged:
garth (fortress) - i 'ardh (the fortress) - i ngarth (the fortresses)
glîr (song, peom, lay) - i 'lîr (the song) - in glîr (the songs)

h- and hw- become ch- and ’w-:
hammad (clothing) - i chammad (the clothing) - i chemmaid (the clothings)
hwest (breeze) - i chwest (the breeze) - i 'wist (the breezes)

f-, l-, m-, n-, s- and th- stay unchanged, but the article becomes i nevertheless:
mellon (friend) - i vellon (the friend) - i mellyn (the friends)

r- also stays unchanged, but the article may become idh:
randír (wanderer) - i randír (the wanderer) - idh rendír (the wanderers)

lh- and rh- become thl- and thr-:
lhoss (whisper, rustling sound) - i thloss (the whisper) - i thlyss (the whispers)

Caro in phith :) Do the words (Secret messages are fun!)

Part I ~ Translate into Sindarin:

1) the Hobbits
2) the fields
3) the wooden platforms (as in the trees in Lothlorien)
4) the days (period of daylight)
5) the angles / corners
6) the falls (not the season)
7) the hammers
8) the stars
9) the (sea)gulls
10) the brothers
11) the faintnesses
12) the errors
13) the Valar

Part II ~ Translate the following from Sindarin into English or your mother tongue.

1) i thling
2) i feryth
3) idh rîw
4) i 'waind
5) i chennith
6) in graiw
7) i ngelaidh
8) in Drúedain
9) i naiw
10) i brethil
11) i chellyn
12) i thîw
13) i phaind
14) i mellyrn
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Eryniel
 
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EXERCISE 11: I-Verbs (§5)

PostAuthor: Eryniel » Fri Aug 12, 2011 1:06 pm

Introduction:

We have already covered the first of the two main classes of verbs in Sindarin, which were A-Verbs – so named after their ending. The I-Verbs that we will be discussing now end on their bare stem and are in present tense connected to their conjugational endings with an 'i', hence the name.
The ending of those I-verbs on their bare stem are the reason why they are also called ‘basic’ or ‘primary’ verbs.
When the past tense will be discussed, we will have to further deal with irregular verbs and blendings between the two main classes, but for the present tense that can be ignored.

The I-verbs will take the same conjugational endings as the A-verbs, but are connected to the stem by the vowel 'i':




SubjectSingularPlural
1. person-n (I)-m (we, exclusive)
1. person-nc (we, inclusive)
2. person (formal)-l (thou)-lir (ye)
2. person (informal)-g (you)-gir (you)
3. person- (he/she/it)-r (they)


Notes:
- For the 3rd person singular form the vowel is lengthened if the verb only has one syllable.
- By inserting the 'i' between stem and ending the other vowels of the verb are changed according to the rules of 'i-affection' – like in plural formation.
- There are the same two forms for 2nd person singular 'you' and for 1st person plural 'we' s for A-verbs.

Example:




SubjectSingularPlural
1. personcenin (I see)cenim (we see, but not you)
1. personceninc (we see, all of us)
2. person (formal)cenil (thou seest)cenilir (ye seest)
2. person (informal)cenig (you see)cenigir (you see)
3. personcên (he/she/it sees)cenir (they see)



Part I ~ Translate into Sindarin:

1. I see an elf.
2. They stop.
3. Today Aragorn comes.
4. You (formal, singular) shout / Thou shoutest commanding.
5. Aragorn and Arwen recite a poem.
6. You (informal, plural) watch the orc-host.
7. I have joy.
8. You (informal, singular) keep hope.
9. We (inclusive) ride good horses. – Nerinc rych vaer.
10. An eagle beats the wings. – Thôr blâb i revail.

Part II ~ Translate the following from Sindarin into English or your mother tongue.

1. Hîr Gondor tôl.
2. Cên vellon.
3. Nerinc lim.
4. Pedil thand.
5. Gwilwilith ephedir Lúthien.
6. Redhim iau.
7. Elrond trenar i bennas.
8. Hâf dínen.
9. Pedil lam edhellen?
10. Thelin padad.
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Eryniel
 
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