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Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: Tuilinde » Fri Jan 01, 2010 3:13 pm

LESSON TEN

PAST TENSE OF BASIC VERBS
&
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

The endings on Basic Verbs depend on the final consonant.
p, c, t, take nasal infixion.
m, n, r, l, take an ending -ne (ln > ll).
v (and sometimes l, r, m) lengthen the vowel and add -e.
Some verbs have two attested Past Tense forms.

Possessive Pronouns are normally endings on the thing owned: (I'm using Thorsten's)
The vowels -e and -i may be inserted after consonants. NB -nya prefers -i > -inya . Further endings for number or case may be added after the pronominal ending.

Translate the following into English or your mother tongue:

Rocconya campë atta (i) cilya.
Lindor lírer lindelta sinya ar Tári laitanet
Pilur suncer limpelma.
Eleni sillë, meneldili tirneret.
Cennettë ríerya malta.
Cáno láve atarinya lelya.
Istyar enyallë parmalya.
Wendi tyaller as huontar.
Amillelya santë vára vaimarya.
Linyenwa nér nyarnë quentalinyar.

Translate the following into Quenya:

The king counted his warriors.
The evil boy twisted my arm.
The saga touched my heart.
The king saw the jewels glitter in his crown.
The guards stood and watched their hero.
The woman loved all her five children.
Thy flowers grew tall and sweet.
The wolf bit her leg.
Our apple trees bore much fruit.
My heir avenged his mother.

Edited 23.2.10
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Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: Tuilinde » Sun Jan 03, 2010 4:09 pm

EXERCISE ELEVEN

THE DATIVE CASE

The Dative case is used for indirect objects affected by the action of the subject. "To....", "for...."; "benefitting..."; and even "against..." It is formed by the ending -n or, following a consonant -en; the plural ending is -in replacing the plural marker -r. The dual ending is -nt or -un.
The word order is flexible, the object may come before or after the subject.
Possessive pronominal endings come before the case ending.

Translate the following into English or your mother tongue:

Liran seronyain. Carnes fenna coaryan. Antanen / ánen i macil i nésen.
Hirnemmë tó vaimatyan. Istar antanë parmar enquë istyaren.
Ohtari mahtaner nóreltan. I samnor camtaner andonu mindonun.
Roqueni mahtaner urquin. Sírë oronyë ulundoin.
Calma mauya caimasanyan.

Translate these sentences into Quenya:

The moon is giving light to the night.
The Elves are giving joy to the World.
The lamps gave light to the city.
We (excl.) found the treasure and gave it to the twelve Dwarves.
The King found his heir and brought joy to the city.
I found the book and I gave it to my king.
The warriors fought for the two lands.
All the peoples are toiling for peace.
The king gave the queen a crown.
Someone gave the captain a mighty sword.

Edited 28.2.10
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Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: Tuilinde » Wed Jan 06, 2010 8:05 pm

EXERCISE TWELVE

THE AORIST TENSE

The Aorist Tense is used for duration-less, habitual, characteristic or timeless actions, general truths and capabilities. "The king speaks Quenya" not "The king is speaking Quenya." It is a thing he does.
In A-verbs the aorist is identical to the Stem.
Primary verbs add an to the stem,( making it identical to the infinitive) which changes to an -i if anything further is added, such as a plural marker. Matë > matir.

Translate the following into English or your mother tongue:

Rimba Naucor haryar harmar. Ilyë Atani firir.
Saila nér cenda / henta rimbë parmar. Ilya elen silë or Ambar.
Ilyë rávi matir hrávë. Rimba roqueni samir roccor.
Ilyë Istari cendar / hentar parmar. Polda rá roita rimba lamni.
Ilya Lairë tulë apa Tuilë. Ilyë ohtari mahtar.

Translate the following into Quenya:

Many warriors have spears. All husbands love their wives.
A good mother makes many loaves. All children play.
Beeches grow tall and strong. The Sun rises daily.
Deserts are blazing hot. All horses love to run.
All Elves love to sing. Every mermaid loves the sea.

Edited 14.3.10
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Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: Tuilinde » Thu Jan 07, 2010 5:53 pm

EXERCISE THIRTEEN

ALLATIVE, ABLATIVE AND LOCATIVE CASES

The Allative Case is used to express ' to, towards', and occasionally 'on, upon,' or 'into'. It is formed with the singular ending -nna plural-nnar, dual -nta.

The Ablative Case is used to express 'from' , and occasionally 'out of '. It is formed with the singular ending -llo plural -llon /-llor, dual -lto.

The Locative Case expresses 'in, on, upon' in time and space. It is formed with singular ending -ssë, plural -ssen, and -tsë for duals with -t. After -l or -n the dual may be -ldë / -ndë; some other consonants may be dropped, or an -e / -i may be inserted.

In all three Cases -e sg & dual, or in the plural -i , is inserted after a consonant to avoid forbidden clusters.
All three cases may be used in a metaphorical sense.

Possessive endings may be put before or after these case endings whichever is more euphonious.

Translate the following sentences into English or your mother tongue:

Híni méler tirë ciryar londessë.
Lelyëammë i mindonello i coanna.
I Naucor túler orontillon; lelyëar i ostonna.
Úmië ohtari mamper i malta mindonello.
Roquen tennë aurë nelyassë.
I nís oantë coanyallo ar lendë i sírenna.
Quén rucë i rávillon, pan manter i aranelma.
Rácar roitar tauressen
Aiwi viler Formenello Hrívessë.
Menello Anar antëa cala Ambarelvan, ar i mornië autëa.

Translate the following into Quenya:

I went to our room to gather my things.
Your son ran out of the house for all the boys went to the hill.
The dragons came to our land from the North.
He speaks our tongue since he lives in our land.
The heralds came from your king to our cities.

Dissect the following, and translate them into English or your mother tongue:

Sámalyassë
Coalvallon
Nórelyanna
Mólinyarellon
Caimanyassë
Ciryalmalto
Ambolyannar
Nóreryallo
Aldalmannar
Máryatsë
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Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: Tuilinde » Wed Feb 24, 2010 2:50 pm

EXERCISE FOURTEEN

REVISION OF EXERCISES 1 - 13

Translate the following sentences into English, or your mother tongue:

Lendes annúra tamponna pacassë.
Móli tuller carë ossa.
Aran leryëa atani enquë mandoryallo.
Lómelindë líra tavassë.
Nieri carir lis lotsinen. instrumental "with" or "from"
Yauler ar huor mahtar!
Ñarmor anaica serner rondoltassë.
Tamo carnë arimairëa calmaron anta Táriryan.
Macar túlë ostanna tulta tó.
Istar quentë aranen.


Translate the following sentences into Quenya:

He found the sword in the tower.
I spoke to her in my house.
Dwarves toil beneath the mountains.
They hide their treasures in their deepest halls.
The boy fell from the ladder.
The woman runs out of her house to find her children.
Her neighbour is bringing them to her.
A witness saw the thief take the very small box out of your cart.
Merchildren are playing in the waves on the shore.
Kingfishers hunt fish in rivers and streams.

(In the last two sentences only put the locative ending on shore and streams. This is the last declinable word rule which we will come to very soon!)

Edited 14.3.10
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Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: Tuilinde » Wed Feb 24, 2010 4:02 pm

EXERCISE FIFTEEN

FUTURE TENSE & INSTRUMENTAL CASE :

The Future Tense is used for actions which will, may, or are wished to happen.
For Basic Verbs add the ending -uva.
For A-Verbs delete the -a and then add -uva
Check the Courses for explanations of occasional irregularities.

The Instrumental Case is used to express that something has been done with, by, using something or someone.
The ending -nen (or -enen after consonants) is used; and the plural is -inen.


Translate the following into English, or your mother tongue:

Ŋandaro ŋanduva tárin.
Hossë lelyuva mahta orqui.
Aiwi liruvar Tuilessë.
Cenuvaltë ciryar i tuluvar londenna.
Casari hiruvar vinyë harmar.
Isil siluva lómessë.
Nai sérë tuluva ardanna.

Ohtari mahtuvar macilínen.
Ravi narcuvar roccor carcaltinen.
Roqueni tular, rehtuvaltë roccoltar.
Nissi mastuvar massë mulenen.
Aran turuva turmenerya istyanen.
Mól pelehtuva alda pelecconen.

Translate the following into Quenya:

The children will come to my house in the Summer.
The Elves will fight with their bows.
The snow will fall in the winter.
Tomorrow the gates will open.
Blossom will grow on the apple trees.
The lamps will shine in the city.
Masons will build a tall tower with marble.
You will set up a long fence with trees.
We will cross the bay by boat.
They will go to the mountains on foot.

Edited 22.3.10
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Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: Tuilinde » Thu Feb 25, 2010 1:07 am

EXERCISE SIXTEEN

PARTICIPLES
Participles are adjectives ending in -ing or -ed which are derived from verbs. (Read the Courses carefully on these.)

Present Active Participles are formed with the ending -la on the verb stem. They describe the present state of something. There is NO PLURAL!!

Perfect Passive Participles describe something that has been done and is formed with the ending -na or -ina. The plural endings are -ne and -ine.
Basic verbs ending in -c, -p, -t, -v lengthen the stem vowel.
Basic verbs ending in -l >-ln > -ld
Sometimes forms of the verb to be are used with the participles.

Translate the following sentences into English, or your mother tongue:

Sílala Anar astanë Ambar.
Lantala alda hyannë i nér.
Lírala aiwi tucuvar alassë elmen.
Cennes liltala vendë nu aldar.
Sírala sírë na yana ar polda.

I nér na hyanna lantala aldanen.
Orqui nér ceninë Eldarinen
Harma nurtana Casarinen.
Salma né ŋandana ŋandaronen.
Erdi nér rernë palarassen.

Translate the following into Quenya:

The rocks were moved by the foaming mountain river.
The wine was sipped from their goblets by the nobles.
The blooming branches were carried to the ships by the singing maidens.
The children were terrified by the ugly, shouting Orcs.
The boat was tied to the post by a mariner.
The bear was killed by a very skillful hunter.
The warriors were remembered by the sorrowing people.
The sheep were protected against wolves by the daring shepherds.
The wanderers were wounded by arrows by the pursuing wild men.
Their wounds were healed on the river bank by a passing good witch.
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Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: Tuilinde » Fri Feb 26, 2010 8:30 pm

EXERCISE SEVENTEEN A

THE VERB TO BE:

Apologia before we go any further - in all the world there is no such thing as a naturally evolving regular verb to be - or so I have read. Tolkien clearly delighted in following this by creating forms for to be which over the years have proved complex. It seems that the publication of PE17 has helped to iron some of the irregularities out - perhaps!!
So before several of you leap to your keyboards to tear this exercise apart. I have done my best to work with what is given in Thorsten's latest course, while stating that here, as with pronouns we are probably still in a very provisional situation.
When Helge produces the revised version of his course (coming out soon, he told me), we may have an opportunity to see either a confirmation of these forms, or another set of alternatives.
I am particularly unclear why there are accented and unaccented forms, and what happens to them when endings are attached. For that reason I am happy to receive corrections based on Thorsten's course, because as we are all well aware, I am a very fallible sort of Quenyaist!

Forms of to be:

(Stem) ná / na

(Imp) ná; nar/nár nát

(Pr) ná/na, nan/nanyë, nal /nalyë, nat /natyë, nas nassë, nar, nalmë/nalvë, naltë

(Aor) ná, nan/nanyë, nal /nalyë, nat /natyë, nas nassë, nar, nalmë/nalvë, naltë

(Past) nánë / né, nánen / nen, nánet / net, nánel / nel, nánes / nes,

náner / ner, nánelmë / nelmë, náneltë / neltë.

Particular Usages

on its own can be used to mean ; yes, it is so.
placed after an adjective tells us how something is - Aelin ringa ná - the lake is cold; - Airë corda na - the temple is holy.
na placed before an adjective becomes an imperative - Na airë! - be holy!
na placed between an adjective and a following noun in the Dative can express a wish, as in the following - Alcar na Erun - glory be to God. (Note use of the Dative Erun)

Translate the following into English, or your mother tongue:

Lírë lindelëa ná.
Firië naica na.
Eleni tinda nar.
I seldo nér faila nauva.
Anda néya nís enwina né vanya.
Orqui sincahonda nar!
Se melda ná.
*Te maiti nauvar.
Talume roccor sinë hrávë ner.
Sí *te nilde nar.

Translate the following into Quenya:

The sea is vast.
The mountains are tall.
The forest was huge.
The Silmaril is star-like.
The king and queen will be wealthy.
Once upon a time the world was unmarred.
Gondolin was hard to build.
Now the city is ruinous.
The children were destitute.
Now they are precious.
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Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: órerámar » Sun Feb 28, 2010 7:18 pm

EXERCISE EIGHTEEN

COMPARATIVE
(Superlative comes in a separate exercise as soon as possible)

In Quenya the comparative can be formed by expressing either that the quality of A comes before the quality of B, or that the quality of A is beyond the quality of B. In both cases, it is clear that A has a greater quality of whatever adjective is mentioned than B.
Expressing a comparative by replacing it with such forms is common in real world languages. In English, related words of “before” are “ahead, in the lead, leading, in front” and idioms with these words are synonym with a comparative: He ran ahead of me = He was faster than me. Beyond means superior to, surpassing, above: he is wise beyond others. In Fench e.g. this is expressed exactly in the same way: one can “dévancer” (be ahead) or “surpasser” (exceed, go beyond) something or someone in quality.

Tolkien has made use of both forms by employing:

epe which means “before” in all relations but time and
which means “beyond”.

Both comparisons are exemplified in PE17.

In addition, a comparison can of course be expressed in various degrees:

A is brighter than B.:
A calima ná lá B. = A is bright beyond B.
A calima ná epe B. = A is bright before B.

A is much brighter than B. :
A ancalima ná lá B. = A is very bright beyond B.
A ancalima ná epe B. = A is very bright before B.

A is far and away brighter than B. :
A arcalima ná lá B. = A is far and away brighter beyond B.
The example of “ari-“ is followed by a note in PE17, that “epe” is not used with “ari-“. I shall therefore only use “beyond” for the highest degree of comparison.

For the adjective “good” mára, the higher degree “better” is arya. “The best” i arya is used in superlatives with the genitive.

Here are a few exercices:

Translate into English

Oron tára ná lá ambo.
Gandalf arisaila ná lá Saruman.
Míre sina anamirwa lá míre tana.
Carrea Arwenwa mírya ná epe carrear exe.
Anar aricalima ná lá Isil.
Rámar soronion ande nár epe i rámar lómelindion.
I yávi orofarnion amminti (anaminti) nár lá i yávi exe aldaron.
Anga torna ná epe malta.
Uscare úvanima ná epe loicare.
Yén arianda ná lá coranar.

Translate into Quenya by using either “epe” or “lá”:

Spring is greener than autumn.
The song of the singing bird is far and away more melodious than the song of the crow.
The Elf is much faster than the Dwarf.
Snow on the snow peak is purer than snow on the street.
A brook in spring is fuller than a brook in winter.
Vegetables are better than meat. (no proselytism intended :D )
A house is much stronger than a shelter.
This work of art is more beautiful than that work.
This smith is more clever-fingered than his neighbour.
Last edited by órerámar on Mon Apr 05, 2010 5:15 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Practice Exercises for Learning Quenya

PostAuthor: órerámar » Sat Mar 06, 2010 10:35 pm

LESSON NINETEEN

SUPERLATIVE

Reminder:

• the prefixes an- and ar- can be used with an adjective by itself ancalima “very bright” or arcalima “exceedingly bright” and then indicate simply that a thing has a quality that is higher than other bright things normally are, but no comparison is made;

an- and ar- together with “beyond” or epe “before” express a comparison in pairs, in other words with the nearest competitor.

To express a superlative, an- and ar- are used with the genitive or an expression that implies a genitive, like imbi “between, among” = imbi eleni = among stars or imb’illi among all (of stars, of all).

• ancalima elenion : an- becomes here a superlative that can be translated as “brightest of stars”, but also “one of the brightest stars”.

• arcalima elenion : ar- expresses a wider gap of brightness between the brightest star and all the others “far the brightest of stars”.

In English superlatives are expressed in the same way: this fruit is by far the ripest of the lot; this day was by far the most expensive of the whole holiday, etc.

ere- “sole” is another superlative prefix, but obviously has to be used with caution, as it will not suit every adjective. The attested example is: eremelda “sole dear, dearest of all”.

The irregular superlative of mára “good” is i arya (with article and genitive).

In poetic language, ari- and ana- can be emphasized by a reduplication : armemelda.



Translate into English

Sin aritára ná orontion.
Anasaila nas nérion.
I alda atta arvavanima nát imb’illi.
Nénime ariringa né astaron.
Arwen arvanima na ilyaron.
Ammelda nas meldenyaron.
Ammaita nas imbi Naucoron.
Analya nauvas aranion.

Translate into Quenya :

This is one of the most northern lands.
The Elves drink the sweetest of nectars.
The Dark Forest is the widest of forests.
To Aragorn, Arwen is the dearest among all women.
This is the best book to read now.
This is far the clumsiest (unskilled) carpenter.
Last edited by órerámar on Wed Apr 07, 2010 2:52 pm, edited 4 times in total.
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