THE PERFECT TENSE:
The Perfect Tense describes an action that is over and finished. In English the words has, and have are used - They have gone into the house, rather than They went into the house.
According to Thorsten there seem to be a number of possible problems, so careful study of the course material is necessary. As usual I will make some choices and try for a measure of clarity!
The Perfect Tense is formed with a prefix, sometimes called an augment or strengthening, as well as a suffix or ending.
The stem vowel is placed as a prefix, and the original vowel is lengthened (if possible).
The ending -ië is added.
Thus tec > etécië; and cen > ecénië
Any derivational endings on A-Verbs are dropped, which may make it possible to lengthen the stem vowel.
Thus verya > evérië and fanta > afánië
Check carefully verbs with a diphthong, as they seem to work from their past tense forms
Thus caita > cëantë > ecëantië and auta > vánë > avánië
Where a verb has changed its form over the ages, it may revert to the earlier form - mahta < mac-ta and so > amácië.
Where a verb begins with a vowel the augment may be the first syllable, or it may be omitted and the Perfect Tense indicated by the ending alone.
Thus anta > ánië and maybe ora > orórië
The usual plural marker -r, or pronominal endings can be added.
Translate the following into English, or your mother tongue:
I nissi ecendier i parma. I úmëa tári amápië i Naucor otso.
Etécielyë parmar atta. I nér utúlië.
I Naucor amátier. I seldor ecénier rá imbë i aldar.
Alaitien i aran, an i aran elérië ilyë móli.
Alantielyë, ar ecénienyes. Emétienyes.
I súrë arácië alda lomessë.
Nyéni amátië ilyë lotsinyar!
Translate the following into Quenya:
The grey ship has sailed into the West.
Our mighty king has conquered all the southern kingdoms.
The foxes have hunted the hare through the valley.
The parents have summoned their children to come into the house, and they have come. (NB summon & come!!)
The sailors have baled out the water and fastened the boat beside the steps.
The great flood has covered all the fields in the valley, and many animals have died. NB Assimillation needed for many animals)
The Wizards have established peace in the kingdoms.
The women have baked the bread and the children have eaten it.
The mason has cut the stones and the builder has built the house. (The root for cut is RIS)
I have spoken, and you have heard me!